Solar Water Heaters, also known as solar domestic hot water systems are very efficient and less expensive way to generate the supply of hot water at domestic places. These solar water heater systems can be used in any climate and the fuel which they use for heat generation is sun rays which is available free of cost.
Advantages of Solar Water Heater:
- Availability of hot water through out the year: The solar water heater systems works throughout the year, it is only during the winter season you would have to heat the water more with the help of boiler or an immersion heater because water cools down quickly during winters.
- Free of Cost: We no need to pay any monthly charges for this system because this system does not require any electricity usage and uses just sunlight which is available free of cost.
- No pollution Problem: this system is a green and renewable it helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide gas.
Nowadays most of the people are showing lot of interest to buy the solar based products and these products are very useful in saving the electricity. Even engineering students are also showing lot of interest to build new solar energy projects which would be helpful for next generation.
How Solar Water Heater Works:
The system includes storage tanks and solar panels called as collectors that are fitted on the top of the building. These collect energy from the sun and then use that energy To boil the water additionally a boiler or an immersion heater can be used.
Types of Water Heating Solar Panels:
There are two types of solar water heating panels. Namely,
- Evacuated tubes
- Smooth and even plate collectors, fixed on roof tiles or integrated inside the roof.
Big size solar panels can be arranged if you would want to warm-up the home. When the heat generation is very less and hence is not considered worthy.
Types of Solar Water Heating Systems:
The solar water heating systems are classified into two types, they are:
- Active solar water heating system
- Passive solar water heating system
Active Solar Heating System:
The active solar system consist controls and circulation pumps for the operation.
The active solar heating systems are two types:
- Direct circulation systems: The direct circulation systems circulate the home water through the collectors since these systems mostly used in where the climate is rarely cold and freezing.
- Indirect circulation systems: the pumps here circulate a heat transfer fluid through a collector and a heat exchanger which heats the water flowing into the home. These systems are most used in places where the temperature is very chilling and freezing.
Passive Solar Heating Systems:
As compared to active solar heating systems these systems are low in cost but are less effective. And these devices are more reliable. The passive solar heating systems doesn’t consist a ny controls and circulations as active heating systems.
The passive heating systems are classified into two types:
- Integral collector-storage passive systems: these systems are used in less freezing places. The systems are very useful during the day and evening times at homes for hot water.
- Thermosyphon systems: water flows through this system when the warm water increases and cool water level reduced. The collector should be placed at below the storage tank so that warm water rises in the tank. Then the system performance will be good the contractors should check the roof of the house before the installation because these systems are very heavy. And more cost than the integral collector storage system.
Storage tanks and solar collectors:
Storage tank is most important one in every solar heater. Basically these solar tanks consist an additional outlet and inlet which are connected to the collector. In two tank systems the heating process starts before the water enters into the heater. In one tank system the back-up heater is connected to the solar storage in a single tank.
The solar collectors are two types, which are used for residential applications
Flat plate collector:
There are two kinds of flat plate collectors namely glazed and unglazed. The glazed collectors are weather proofed and it uses a dark absorber plate under either one or two glass. The unglazed collectors utilized for heating the solar pool. It uses dark absorber plate made of metal polymer without any fencing.
Integral collector storage systems:
The integral collector storage systems which are also called ICS batch systems have one or more black tanks or tubes that are insulated in a glazed box. When the cold water goes through the solar collector then it boil/heat the water. The boil water then flow through the conventional water heater where we get hot water. These storage systems mostly used mildly freezing places because there are chances that the outdoor pipes might freeze in extreme cool temperatures.
Evacuated tube solar collectors:
They consist of transparent glass tubes where each tube consists of a glass outer tube and a metal absorber connected to a paddle. The paddle takes heat from the sun but these collectors prohibitly gives energy loss. These type of system used in commercial applications
The solar water heating systems however requires a backup system during cloudy days and when the demanding of the system is increases. The conventional storage water heater systems are used as backup and are sometimes available in the package of solar water heaters. The system can also be a part of the solar collector like the rooftop tanks also with the thermosyphon system. Already we have know that an integral collector storage system stores hot water in addition to collecting the solar energy it is packed with the tank less or demand type.
How Solar Water Heater Systems Maintain?
The maintenance cost of these systems is very low. Users must check system from time to time whether there are any leaks. If leaks in the system then it visible from outside there could be a foul smell it shows there will be leakage. The high cooling after a period of time which is used for the protection of system must be topped up or replaces as there are chances it might break resulting in the bad performance of heater. If the system is used continuously then the Anti cool remains good.
- Solar Water Heater by wikimedia