How to Interfacing DC Motor with 8051 Microcontroller?

In electrical and electronics project circuits or machines are developed using advanced technologies. These circuits and machines are intended to control easily using very advanced programming techniques. The programming techniques are used to send appropriate control signals for machines or circuits in order to control. This can be achieved using various types of microprocessors and microcontrollers. Even though, there are many types of microcontrollers are existing but, 8051 microcontroller is typically used because of its advantages. We can control any circuit or machine by interfacing with 8051 microcontroller which is programmed with appropriate commands.

Interfacing with 8051

Interfacing with 8051 microcontroller can be defined as transferring data from interfacing peripherals such as sensors, motors, machines, circuit components, and so on to 8051 microcontroller and vice versa. By interfacing with 8051, we can have ease of control over complex circuit components or devices. The 8051 microcontroller is frequently used in electronics projects for controlling several operations.

Peripherals Interfacing with 8051
Peripherals Interfacing with 8051

In these circuits, generally several electronics devices or peripherals are interfaced with 8051 which are termed as interfacing devices. For example, 7 segment display interfacing with 8051, LCD display interfacing with 8051, Matrix keypad interfacing with 8051, interfacing DS1307 RTC with 8051 microcontroller, interfacing 8051 with servo motor, interfacing DC motor with 8051, 8051 microcontroller interfacing with ADC, and so on.

Interfacing DC Motor with 8051 Microcontroller

Interfacing DC Motor with 8051 Microcontroller
Interfacing DC Motor with 8051 Microcontroller

The main purpose of DC interfacing with 8051 microcontroller is for controlling the speed of the motor. The DC motor is an electrical machine with a rotating part termed as a rotor which has to be controlled. For example, consider the DC motor whose speed or direction of rotation of DC motor can be controlled using programming techniques which can be achieved by interfacing with 8051 microcontroller. So, in this article let us discuss about interfacing DC motor with 8051 microcontroller.

Motor Driver IC used for Interfacing DC motor with 8051

Here, interfacing 8051 with DC motor requires a motor driver. There are various types of driver ICs among which L293D is typically used for interfacing DC motor with 8051. L293 is an IC with 16 pins which are represented in the figure below.

Motor Driver IC L293D used for Interfacing DC motor with 8051
Motor Driver IC L293D used for Interfacing DC motor with 8051

This L293 IC is having ratings of 600mA per channel and DC supply voltage in the range of 4.5V to 36V. These ICs can be protected from inductive spikes by connecting higher speed clamp diodes internally. This 16 pin L293D IC can be used for controlling the direction of two DC motors. The IC L293D works based on the H-bridge concept. The voltage can be made to flow in either direction using this circuit (H-bridge) such that by changing the voltage direction the motor direction can be changed.

The practical application of L293D IC is (L293D acts as an interfacing device) DC motor interfacing with 8051 microcontroller by which we can control the speed and direction of the motor. Practical applications in which speed and direction of DC motor can be controlled by interfacing with 8051 microcontroller are discussed below.

Speed Control of DC Motor using Microcontroller 8051

The main intention of this project is to control the speed of DC motor using 8051 microcontroller which can be achieved by interfacing DC motor with 8051. The project circuit for speed control of DC motor using microcontroller 8051 is shown in the figure below.

Speed Control of DC Motor using Microcontroller 8051 Project Circuit by Edgefxkits.com
Speed Control of DC Motor using Microcontroller 8051 Project Circuit by Edgefxkits.com

There are different blocks in the project circuit such as power supply block which provides power supply to the entire circuit. The 8051 microcontroller block interfaced with two input buttons and motor block with DC motor interfacing with 8051 microcontroller using motor driver as shown in the block diagram below.

Three Phase Solid State Relay with ZVS Project Block Diagram by Edgefxkits.com
Three Phase Solid State Relay with ZVS Project Block Diagram by Edgefxkits.com

The IC L293D is used for interfacing 8051 with DC motor as shown in the block diagram. The two input buttons can be used to control the output PWM generated by the microcontroller. This output signal is then fed to DC motor through motor driver. Thus, the speed of DC motor can be controlled.

Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control with Microcontroller

The four quadrant DC motor speed control operation can be achieved by interfacing DC motor with 8051 microcontroller. The speed of the motor as well as the operation of motor in four quadrants such as forward brake, reverse brake, clockwise, anti-clockwise rotation can be controlled using 8051 microcontroller. The four quadrant DC motor speed control with 8051 microcontroller is shown in the below figure.

Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control with Microcontroller Project Circuit by Edgefxkits.com
Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control with Microcontroller Project Circuit by Edgefxkits.com

In industrial applications such as conveyer belts the clockwise and anti-clockwise operation of DC motor is essential. For these types of applications the motor can be controlled using this technique.

Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control with Microcontroller Project Circuit Block Diagram by Edgefxkits.com
Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control with Microcontroller Project Circuit Block Diagram by Edgefxkits.com

The four quadrant DC motor speed control with 8051 microcontroller project block diagram is shown in the below figure. There are various blocks such as microcontroller block interfaced with motor using motor driver, power supply block, and switch array. By using the switch array the control signals are fed to the microcontroller which in turn controls the operation of the DC motor through motor driver.

Do you want to design electronics projects that involve the circuits interfacing with 8051 microcontroller? Then, share your views, comments, suggestions, and queries in the comments section below.

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