Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements. This article discusses the difference between P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor.

What is P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor?

The definitions of p-type and n-type and their differences are discussed below.


The P-type semiconductor can be defined as, once the trivalent impurity atoms such as indium, gallium are added to an intrinsic semiconductor, and then it is known as a p-type semiconductor. In this semiconductor, the majority charge carriers are holes whereas minority charge carriers are electrons. The hole’s density is higher than the electrons density. The accepts level mainly lies nearer to the valence band.

P-type Semiconductor
P-type Semiconductor

The N-type semiconductor can be defined as, once the pentavalent impurity atoms such as Sb, As is added to an intrinsic semiconductor, and then it is known as an n-type semiconductor. In this semiconductor, the majority charge carriers are electrons whereas minority charge carriers are holes. The electrons density is higher than the density of the holes. The donor level mainly lies nearer to the conduction band.

N Type Semiconductor
N-type Semiconductor

Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

The difference between a p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor mainly includes different factors namely the charge carriers like majority & minority, doping element, nature of the doping element, the density of charge carriers, Fermi level, energy level, the majority charge carriers movement of direction, etc. The difference between these two is listed in the tabular form below.

P-type Semiconductor

N-type Semiconductor

The P-type semiconductor can be formed by adding trivalent impuritiesThe N-type semiconductor can be formed by adding pentavalent impurities
Once the impurity is added, then it creates holes or vacancy of electrons. So this is called an acceptor atom.Once the impurity is added, then it gives extra electrons. So this is called a donor Atom.
The III group elements are Ga, Al, In, etcThe V group elements are As, P,  Bi, Sb, etc.
The majority charge carriers are holes & minority charge carriers are electronsThe majority charge carriers are electrons & minority charge carriers are holes
The Fermi level of p-type semiconductor mainly lies among the energy level of acceptor & the valence band.The Fermi level of n-type semiconductors mainly lies among the energy level of the donor & the conduction band.
The density of the hole is very high than the density of electron (nh >> ne)The density of electron is very high than the density of hole (ne >> nh)
The concentration of majority charge carriers is moreThe concentration of majority charge carriers is more
In p-type, the energy level of the acceptor is near to the valence band & absent from the conduction band.In n-type, the energy level of the donor is near to the conduction band & absent from the valence band.
The majority charge carrier’s movement will be from high potential to low.The majority charge carrier’s movement will be from low potential to high.
When the concentration of holes is high, then this semiconductor carries the +Ve charge.This semiconductor preferably carries a -Ve charge.
The formation of holes in this semiconductor is called as acceptorsThe formation of electrons in this semiconductor is called as acceptors
The conductivity of p-type is because of the presence of majority charge carriers like holesThe conductivity of n-type is because of the presence of majority charge carriers like electrons.

FAQs

1). What are the trivalent elements used in p-type?

PCBWay

They are Ga, Al, etc.

2). What are pentavalent elements used in n-type?

They are As, P, Bi, Sb

3). What is the density of holes in p-type?

The hole density is high than electrons density (nh>>ne)

4). What is the density of electrons in n-type?

The electron density is higher than hole density (ne>>nh)

5). What are the types of semiconductors?

They are intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors

6). What are the types of extrinsic semiconductors?

They are p-type semiconductors and n-type semiconductors.

Thus, this is all about the main difference between a p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor. In n-type, the majority charge carriers have a -ve charge, thus it is named as n-type. Similarly, in p-type, the result of a +ve charge can be formed in the electron absence, thus it is named as p-type. The material dissimilarity between the doping of these two semiconductors is the electron’s flow direction throughout the deposited semiconductor layers. Both the semiconductors are good conductors for electricity. Here is a question for you, what is the movement of majority charge carriers in p-type & n-type?

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