Working on Different Types of Rectifiers

Different Types of Rectifiers
Different Types of Rectifiers

In a large number of electrical and electronic circuits, DC voltage is required for its operation. We can simply alter the AC voltage into DC voltage by using a device called PN junction diode. One of the most significant applications of a PN junction diode is the rectification of AC into DC. A PN junction diode permits electric current in only one direction i.e, forward bias condition and blocks electric current in reverse bias condition. This single property of the diode lets it perform like a rectifier.This article discusses different types of rectifiers and its comparisons.

Different Types of Rectifiers

A rectifier is an electrical device comprises of one or more diodes which allow the flow of current only in one direction. It basically converts alternating current into direct current. Rectifiers can be mould in several shapes as per necessity like semiconductor diodes, SCRs (silicon controlled rectifiers), vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, etc. In our previous articles, we have explained diodes, types of diodes in detail. But in this, we are going to give details of rectifiers, types of rectifiers and its applications etc.


Working on Different Types of Rectifiers
Working on Different Types of Rectifiers

For signal discovery and power rectification, diode rectifier circuits are extensively used in designing of electronic circuits, which are used in various devices like radio signals or detectors, DC power supplies, household appliances like video game systems, laptops, televisions etc.

Rectifiers are categorized into a variety of designs depends on factors namely, type of supply, bridge configuration, components used, control nature, etc. Majorly these are classified into two types they are single phase and three phase rectifier. Further rectifiers are classified into three types namely uncontrolled, half controlled and full controlled rectifiers. Let us see in brief about some of these types of rectifiers.

Half-wave Rectifier

In this type of rectifier, when AC supply is applied at the input, only positive half cycle become visible across the load while the negative half cycle is covered up. In a single phase supply, it needs a single diode while in a three-phase supply it needs three diodes. It is not capable because only half of the i/p waveforms reach the output. To reduce the ripples of the AC frequency from the o/p, more filtering is required in half wave rectifier circuit.Please refer the link to know more about Half wave Rectifier Circuit Working Principle and Characteristics

Half-wave Rectifier
Half-wave Rectifier

Full Wave Rectifier

In this type of rectifier, during both the half cycles when AC supply is applied to the i/p, the flow of current through the load flows in the same direction. This circuit yields a higher standard output voltage by altering both polarities of the i/p waveform to pulsating DC. This sort of rectification can be achieved by using at slightest two crystal diodes, conducting current differently. During positive as well as the negative half-cycle of the input AC, the following two circuits that is the center tap full wave rectifier and full wave bridge rectifier is used to get the same direction of current flow in the load resistor.Please refer the link to know more about Full-wave Rectifier Circuit with Working Theory

PCBWay

Full Wave Rectifier
Full Wave Rectifier

Center Tap Full-wave Rectifier

This type of rectifier circuit uses a transformer with secondary winding tapped at the center point. Two diodes are connected in the circuit so that each one of them uses one-half cycle of the input AC voltage. For rectification, one diode uses the ac voltage showing the upper half of secondary winding while other diode uses the lower half of the secondary winding. The o/p and efficiency of this circuit are high because AC supply brings power throughout both the halves.

Center Tap Full-wave Rectifier
Center Tap Full-wave Rectifier

Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

Bridge rectifier circuit is one of the capable forms of full wave rectifier that uses four diodes in a bridge topology. In place of center tap transformer, a normal transformer is used. The AC supply to be rectified is applied to the diagonally differing ends of the bridge and the load resistor is connected across the residual two diagonally differing ends of the bridge.

Full wave Bridge Rectifier
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

Comparison of Rectifiers

The comparisons between different types of rectifiers on the various points are tabulated below.

PropertiesHalf wave rectifierFull wave center tap rectifierFull wave bridge rectifier
Number of Diodes124
D.C CurrentIm / π2 Im / π2 Im / π
Transformer NecessaryNoYesNo
Max Value of CurrentVm / (rf + RL)Vm / (rf + RL)Vm / (2rf + RL)
Ripple Factor1.210.4820.482
O/p Frequencyfin2 fin2 fin
Max Efficiency40.6%81.2%81.2%
Peak Inverse VoltageVm2 Vm2 Vm

These are the few types of rectifiers used commonly for numerous applications including all electronic and electrical projects. We hope that readers might have got a superior answer to the question what is the function of a rectifier. Any further questions regarding this concept or practical guidance of building electronic projects you can comment below.

3 Comments

  1. Pavan kunar says:

    Thank u so much for sharing it is so usefull to electrical and electronic engineering

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi Pavan Kumar
      My pleasure. I hope it helps a lot

  2. mnr electrical says:

    very useful information.Thanks for sharing

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