How To Build An FM transmitter Circuit Its Working and Applications

The FM transmitter is a single transistor circuit. In the telecommunication, the frequency modulation (FM) transfers the information by varying the frequency of carrier wave according to the message signal. Generally, the FM transmitter uses VHF radio frequencies of 87.5 to 108.0 MHz to transmit & receive the FM signal. This transmitter accomplishes the most excellent range with less power. The performance and working of the wireless audio transmitter circuit is depends on the induction coil & variable capacitor. This article will explain about the working of the FM transmitter circuit with its applications.

What is an FM Transmitter?

The FM transmitter is a low power transmitter and it uses FM waves for transmitting the sound, this transmitter transmits the audio signals through the carrier wave by the difference of frequency. The carrier wave frequency is equivalent to the audio signal of the amplitude and the FM transmitter produce VHF band of 88 to 108MHZ.Plese follow the below link for: Know all About Power Amplifiers for FM Transmitter

FM Transmitter
FM Transmitter

Block Diagram of FM Transmitter

The following image shows the block diagram of the FM transmitter and the required components of the FM transmitter are; microphone, audio pre amplifier, modulator, oscillator, RF- amplifier and antenna. There are two frequencies in the FM signal, first one is carrier frequency and the other one is audio frequency. The audio frequency is used to modulate the carrier frequency. The FM signal is obtained by differing the carrier frequency by allowing the AF. The FM transistor consists of oscillator to produce the RF signal.

Block Diagram of FM Transmitter
Block Diagram of FM Transmitter

Working of FM Transmitter Circuit

The following circuit diagram shows the FM transmitter circuit and the required electrical and electronic components for this circuit is the power supply of 9V, resistor, capacitor, trimmer capacitor, inductor, mic, transmitter, and antenna. Let us consider the microphone to understand the sound signals and inside the mic there is a presence of capacitive sensor. It produces according to the vibration to the change of air pressure and the AC signal.

FM Transmitter Circuit
FM Transmitter Circuit

The formation of the oscillating tank circuit can be done through the transistor of 2N3904 by using the inductor and variable capacitor. The transistor used in this circuit is an NPN transistor used for general purpose amplification. If the current is passed at the inductor L1 and variable capacitor then the tank circuit will oscillate at the resonant carrier frequency of the FM modulation. The negative feedback will be the capacitor C2 to the oscillating tank circuit.

To generate the radio frequency carrier waves the FM transmitter circuit requires an oscillator. The tank circuit is derived from the LC circuit to store the energy for oscillations. The input audio signal from the mic penetrated to the base of the transistor, which modulates the LC tank circuit carrier frequency in FM format. The variable capacitor is used to change the resonant frequency for fine modification to the FM frequency band. The modulated signal from the antenna is radiated as radio waves at the FM frequency band and the antenna is nothing but copper wire of 20cm long and 24 gauge. In this circuit the length of the antenna should be significant and here you can use the 25-27 inches long copper wire of the antenna.

Application of Fm Transmitter

  • The FM transmitters are used in the homes like sound systems in halls to fill the sound with the audio source.
  • These are also used in the cars and fitness centers.
  • The correctional facilities have used in the FM transmitters to reduce the prison noise in common areas.

Advantages of the FM Transmitters

  • The FM transmitters are easy to use and the price is low
  • The efficiency of the transmitter is very high
  • It has a large operating range
  • This transmitter will reject the noise signal from an amplitude variation.

Disadvantages of the FM Transmitter

  • In the FM transmitter the huge wider channel is required.
  • The FM transmitter and receiver will tend to be more complex.
  • Due to some interference there is poor quality in the received signals

In this article we have discussed about the FM transmitter circuit working and its applications. I hope by reading this article you have gained some basic knowledge about the working of FM transmitter. If you have any queries about this article or to implement electronics projects for engineering students, please feel free to comment in the below section. Here is the question for you, what is the function of the FM transmitter?

22 Comments

  1. HI Tarun
    whether this circuit can be improved further by using extra components.
    is it so and how can you explain me,it will help me a lots to crack my interview plz as soon as possible reply me

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi
      FM transmission is an area of communication that is always moving with technological advancements. As the new digital radios become more available, dramatic improvements will be heard by listeners

  2. I MADE MANY MORE CIRCUIT. BUT NONE TO WORK…

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi Sardar
      Please try again and again untill you get success

  3. zahranili says:

    usefull.i like to subscribe

  4. Does this circuit work in real life if we build it using a breadboard. Please reply asap

  5. HI, Please i am working on a 2km fm transmitter project for my degree programme, i hope to find hel here when needed on some design issues and some device literatures.
    thanks

  6. Puni Henry says:

    Please i really need your assistance in making a working FM Transmitter

  7. Claudine{M.C} says:

    Fm transmitter is very useful in my life

  8. Instead of LC tank circuit we can use crystal oscillator.

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi Sumanth
      I sincerely appreciate your kind response regarding my article. As per your query, the LC tank circuit can be tunable, but we can’t the crystal oscillator. so LC tunable oscillators are most suitable for FM transmission
      Please visit our website once https://www.elprocus.com
      For any assistance or for customization of projects please email us on team@elprocus.com

  9. Upasana Pattnaik says:

    It is trully amazing comprehention about the FM TRANSMITTER…… its very useful to me…. .. Thanks sir.

Add Comment