Piston Pump Working and Different Types

The piston pump is strong, as well as simple devices. These pumps are made with a chamber, a piston, and a couple of control devices. These pumps function by flowing downward into the chamber, thus reducing the media within a hand pump. When the air pressure surpasses from the opening valve spring, then the reduced media can be sent throughout the open exit valve. As the piston is drawn back-up, then it releases the inlet valve & shuts the outlet valve, thus suction can be used to draw in extra media for compression. This article discusses an overview of piston-pump, working, types, etc.

What is a Piston Pump?

The piston pump can be defined as it is a positive displacement pump. These pumps use a piston, diaphragm, otherwise plunger for moving liquids. These pumps use check valves as the input and output valves. The general piston-pump is a rotary pump which uses a wheel or revolving shaft for operating the piston.

The revolving component can be connected to a shaft from its center, and this shaft can be connected to the piston. When the revolving component twists, it runs the shaft as well as piston down to pull it back.

Piston Pump Working

The piston pump working is similar to PD pumps. Because they work with the help of the pumping mechanism force to increase the volume of the liquid. These pumps can use the power from power sources.

Piston Pump
Piston Pump

These pumps include more than one piston with a set of control devices. The duplex pump includes two pistons as well as two controlling devices. Similarly, a triplex pump includes three pistons as well as three controlling devices. It is very important to check the controlling devices on both sides to ensure that the flow of liquid direction at both sides is flowing or not.

These pumps are single otherwise double acting pumps. Double acting pumps involve two sets of controlling devices & liquid on both ends. This lets the pump to complete a pumping cycle by flowing in one direction to other. When the piston is taking in one direction, then it will exhaust at another side. This pump needs solo action versions for flowing in both directions for completing a cycle.


Types of Piston Pumps

These pumps are classified into different types namely lift pump, a force pump, axial pump, and radial piston-pump. From these pumps, lift and force pumps can operate manually otherwise with the help of an engine.

Types of Piston Pumps
Types of Piston Pumps

Lift Piston Pump

In this type of pump, the piston above stroke can draw fluid with the help of a control device which is named as valve into the below portion of the cylinder.

On the below stroke, fluid flows through control devices which are arranged in the piston into the higher portion of the cylinder. After that on the upstroke, fluid can be released from the higher portion of the cylinder through a spout.

Force Pump

In this type of pump, the piston pumps upstroke can draw fluid throughout an inlet valve to the cylinder (tube). On top of the downstroke, the fluid level can be discharged via an exit valve into the outlet tube.

Axial Piston Pump

This is pump is a PD (positive displacement) pump and it has several pistons within a circular array of a tube block. This block can be driven to turn its symmetry axis with an important shaft which is associated with the pumping pistons. These pumps can be used like an automotive air conditioning compressor, a separate pump, otherwise a hydraulic motor.

Radial Piston Pump

This pump is one kind of hydraulic pump, and the working pistons expand within a radial track symmetrically in the region of the drive shaft, in disparity in the direction of the axial piston pump.


The main specifications while choosing these pumps mainly include the rate of flow, head of the pump, volume stroke, pressure, outlet diameter, power rating, horsepower, and finally operating temperature.


The materials used to design the piston-pump mainly depend on the application of a pump. The casing and cylinder materials must have sufficient strength as well as they have to hold up adjacent to the operating environment conditions. Materials to get in touch with the pumped media require to resistant for any rust-induced with the liquid. Some type of materials used in this pump is discussed below.

  • Cast iron offers high tensile power, robustness, and scratch resistance equivalent to high force ratings.
  • Plastic materials are cheap as well as offer a wide resistance toward rust as well as chemical attack.
  • Stainless steel alloys and steel give safety against rust and chemical and they have superior tensile powers compare with plastics, equivalent to superior pressure ratings.
  • Other types of materials used to design the pump mainly include aluminum, brass, bronze, ceramics, and nickel-alloy.


The advantages of a piston pump mainly include the following.

  • The range of pressure is wide
  • Force can be managed without moving flow rate.
  • The rate of flow and Pressure changes has a small outcome on the act.
  • Skilled in moving of thick fluids, slurries, as well as abrasives with good control device design.


The disadvantages of piston pump mainly include the following.

  • Maintenance cost, & operating is high usually bulky and heavy
  • They handle only lesser flow rates
  • Flow is Pulsating

Thus, this is all about piston pumps which are used like hydraulic pumps for powering heavy machines as well as small machines. Piston pump applications mainly include transferring paint, pastry, chocolate, etc. The size of these pipes has increased for utilizing in industries. All types of piston-pumps in the form of radial and axial are also used in advanced industrial applications, which include numerous pistons arranged within a round cylinder block. Here is a question for you, what are the parts of the piston pump?