Vacuum Pump Types and Applications

The vacuum pump is one kind of equipment, used to create a vacuum within the closed container. The first pump was used in the laboratory. There are different types of pumps are available with different features associated with this technology. Novel research in the field of science & technology has spoiled the procedure in particular industrial applications namely automobiles, sewage systems, pharmaceutical, and industrial process, etc. Based on these methods, they are separated into positive displacement, rotary vane, liquid ring, entrapment pumps, & molecular transfer, etc.

What is a Vacuum Pump?

The vacuum pump is one kind of system used to reduce the liquid pressure, comparative to limited pressure, and attained through a vacuum system which is frequently used to take away surplus air and its elements. Excess reactants otherwise unnecessary by-products; decrease the boiling point, etc. In several development industries, overriding anxiety is the degree of migration required. These pumps are classified into different types and used in various processes by different requirements of vacuum and displacement levels.

Vacuum Pump
Vacuum Pump

The vacuum pump efficiency mainly depends on different parameters such as pumping speed and throughput. The dimension factor for both is these are dissimilar. Some of the corporations even calculate the capacity of the pump in terms of suction capacity & capability to produce vacuum in Hg.

How does it Work?

The working of a vacuum pump is, it eliminates the air from the closed system through suction to gradually reduce the density of air in the restricted space so that vacuum can be created. It removes the air in a closed system because of the mechanical effort energy of a revolving shaft is changed to pneumatic power.

The inside force level within a preserved volume becomes lesser than that of the exterior environment. The quantity of energy generated mainly depends on the gas volume otherwise air eliminated and the generated pressure dissimilarity among inside and outside atmosphere.

Vacuum Pump Types

There are different vacuum pumps are available, and the common function of these pumps are nothing but removing air, vapor, or gases from a closed device. Generally, these are classified into three types which are discussed in detail below.

Types of Vacuum Pumps
Types of Vacuum Pumps

1). Positive Displacement Pump

These types of vacuum pumps work with a mechanism like which continuously expands a cavity to permit the gases for flowing from an external chamber. Then the cavity is opened as well as gas discharges into the atmosphere. These pumps are very useful in creating low vacuums.

2). Momentum Transfer Pump

These types of pumps are known as molecular pumps and work with high-speed fluids for moving gas particles outside of chamber before opened. These pumps are mainly used to attain high vacuums, and they frequently work in conjunction with different displacement pumps.

3). Regenerative Pump

This pump use vortex performance of the fluid and its construction is mainly depending on the hybrid theory of centrifugal & turbopump. Generally, it includes numerous perpendicular teeth sets over the rotor flowing air particles within stationary empty grooves such as the multistage centrifugal pump.

Once the pump is combined with Holweck pump then it reaches to 1×10−5 mbar directly drain to atmospheric force. Sometimes it is referred to as a side channel pump. These pumps are used in load lock within manufacturing industries for semiconductor processes.

This kind of pump experiences from huge power consumption like 1 kW contrasted to turbo molecular pump like <100W at low-pressure as most power is used to reverse atmospheric force. This can be decreased by almost 10 times with a tiny pump.

4). Entrapment Pump

This kind of pump possibly a cryopump, and it uses cold temperature to compress gases to a hard state. A chemical pump responds with gases for producing a hard residue, otherwise, an ion pump utilizes tough electrical fields to push the ions as well as ionize gases into a hard substrate. A cryomodule employs cryopumping. These types of pumps are the sorption, titanium sublimation, non-evaporative getter pumps.

Advantages of Vacuum Pump

The advantages of vacuum pumps include the following.

  • These pumps are used to securely suction & move a waste of mine camp.
  • These have spill avoidance as well as controlling the capacity of odor to make easy & safe transport materials of bio-solids.
  • The main intention of these pumps is to move dangerous materials safely to save the environment from poisonous wastage.
  • They remove the wastage rapidly and from blocked drainages so that the time can be saved as well as the task can be done earlier.
  • These are used in power jets, tipping tanks, and rear doors which are ideal for use in a broad range of applications.

Disadvantages of Vacuum Pump

The disadvantages of vacuum pump include the following.

  • These pumps may be injured by fluid slugs.
  • The fluid within the pump & the process gas should be well-suited to avoid pollution.
  • The pump suction pressure can be limited with the vapor of the fluid within the pump
  • Due to the sealant fluid vapor pressure, the obtainable vacuum can be limited at the operating temperature.

Applications of Vacuum Pump

The applications of vacuum pump include the following.

  • These pumps are used in several industrial & scientific processes which includes complex plastic molding, vacuum tubes, CRTs, manufacture of electric lamps, semiconductor processing, dry etch, particularly ion implant, and ALD, PVD, CVD, & PECVD deposition in photolithography, etc.
  • The vacuum is used to provide support for mechanical devices. For example, this pump can be arranged on the engine in hybrid & diesel engine motor vehicles.
  • This pump may be used to power the components of a motor vehicle like hydraulic brakes, dampers, throttle driver, and door locks, etc..
  • These pumps are used in an aircraft, and the source of vacuum is frequently utilized to control gyroscopes within a variety of airplane instruments.
  • The total instrumentation loss in the electrical failure can be stopped by the instrument panel which is designed with particular instruments & other instruments power-driven by the vacuum source.

This is all about the vacuum pump and its types. The applications of these pumps mainly involve scientific, medical, and industrial applications like pulp, cement, paper, power plants, sugar mills, chemicals, treatment plants, pharmaceuticals, etc. Here is a question for you, what is the function of the vacuum pump?