Buck Boost Converter Circuit Theory Working and Applications

The buck boost converter is a DC to DC converter. The output voltage of the DC to DC converter is less than or greater than the input voltage. The output voltage of the magnitude depends on the duty cycle. These converters are also known as the step up and step down transformers and these names are coming from the analogous step up and step down transformer. The input voltages are step up/down to some level of more than or less than the input voltage. By using the low conversion energy, the input power is equal to the output power. The following expression shows the low of a conversion.

Input power (Pin) = Output power (Pout)

For the step up mode, the input voltage is less than the output voltage (Vin < Vout). It shows that the output current is less than the input current. Hence the buck booster is a step up mode.

Vin < Vout and Iin > Iout

In the step down mode the input voltage is greater than the output voltage (Vin > Vout). It follows that the output current is greater the input current. Hence the buck boost converter is a step down mode.

Vin > Vout and Iin < Iout

What is a Buck Boost Converter?

It is a type of DC to DC converter and it has a magnitude of output voltage. It may be more or less than equal to the input voltage magnitude. The buck boost converter is equal to the fly back circuit and single inductor is used in the place of the transformer. There are two types of converters in the buck boost converter that are buck converter and the other one is boost converter. These converters can produce the range of output voltage than the input voltage. The following diagram shows the basic buck boost converter.

Buck Boost Converter
Buck Boost Converter

Working principle of Buck Boost Converter

The working operation of the DC to DC converter is the inductor in the input resistance has the unexpected variation in the input current. If the switch is ON then the inductor feed the energy from the input and it stores the energy of magnetic energy. If the switch is closed it discharges the energy. The output circuit of the capacitor is assumed as high sufficient than the time constant of an RC circuit is high on the output stage. The huge time constant is compared with the switching period and make sure that the steady state is a constant output voltage Vo(t) = Vo(constant) and present at the load terminal.

There are two different types of working principles in the buck boost converter.

  • Buck converter.
  • Boost converter.

Buck Converter Working

The following diagram shows the working operation of the buck converter. In the buck converter first transistor is turned ON and second transistor is switched OFF due to high square wave frequency. If the gate terminal of the first transistor is more than the current pass through the magnetic field, charging C, and it supplies the load. The D1 is the Schottky diode and it is turned OFF due to the positive voltage to the cathode.

Buck Converter Working
Buck Converter Working

The inductor L is the initial source of current. If the first transistor is OFF by using the control unit then the current flow in the buck operation. The magnetic field of the inductor is collapsed and the back e.m.f is generated collapsing field turn around the polarity of the voltage across the inductor. The current flows in the diode D2, the load and the D1 diode will be turned ON.

The discharge of the inductor L decreases with the help of the current. During the first transistor is in one state the charge of the accumulator in the capacitor. The current flows through the load and during the off period keeping Vout reasonably. Hence it keeps the minimum ripple amplitude and Vout closes to the value of Vs

Boost Converter Working

In this converter the first transistor is switched ON continually and for the second transistor the square wave of high frequency is applied to the gate terminal. The second transistor is in conducting when the on state and the input current flow from the inductor L through the second transistor. The negative terminal charging up the magnetic field around the inductor. The D2 diode cannot conduct because the anode is on the potential ground by highly conducting the second transistor.

Boost Converter Working
Boost Converter Working

By charging the capacitor C the load is applied to the entire circuit in the ON State and it can construct earlier oscillator cycles. During the ON period the capacitor C can discharge regularly and the amount of high ripple frequency on the output voltage. The approximate potential difference is given by the equation below.

VS + VL

During the OFF period of second transistor the inductor L is charged and the capacitor C is discharged. The inductor L can produce the back e.m.f and the values are depending up on the rate of change of current of the second transistor switch. The amount of inductance the coil can occupy. Hence the back e.m.f can produce any different voltage through a wide range and determined by the design of the circuit. Hence the polarity of voltage across the inductor L has reversed now.

The input voltage gives the output voltage and atleast equal to or higher than the input voltage. The diode D2 is in forward biased and the current applied to the load current and it recharges the capacitors to VS + VL and it is ready for the second transistor.

Modes Of Buck Boost Converters

There are two different types of modes in the buck boost converter. The following are the two different types of buck boost converters.

  • Continuous conduction mode.
  • Discontinuous conduction mode.

Continuous Conduction Mode

In the continuous conduction mode the current from end to end of inductor never goes to zero. Hence the inductor partially discharges earlier than the switching cycle.

Discontinuous Conduction Mode

In this mode the current through the inductor goes to zero. Hence the inductor will totally discharge at the end of switching cycles.

Applications of Buck boost converter

  • It is used in the self regulating power supplies.
  • It has consumer electronics.
  • It is used in the Battery power systems.
  • Adaptive control applications.
  • Power amplifier applications.

Advantages of Buck Boost Converter

  • It gives higher output voltage.
  • Low operating duct cycle.
  • Low voltage on MOSFETs

Thus, this is all about the Buck Boost Converter Circuit Working and applications. The information given in the article is the basic concept of buck boost converters. If you have any queries regarding this concept or to implement electrical engineering projects, please comment in the comment section below. Here is a question for you. What are the Functions of the buck boost converters?

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8 Comments

  1. Is buck boost converter used in dual mode or operate like switching device

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi Dharun
      Buck-Boost Converter a switch-mode converter. As the name suggests, it takes an input voltage & boosts its output.

  2. Michael Frischman says:

    Hi Tarun,

    I want to use a buck boost converter with solar cells to power a 2s Lipo battery. Will the buck boost converter keep the battery from overcharging on top of lowering the output voltage to increase current? Do I need another apparatus to make sure the battery doesnt overcharge and get damaged?

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi

      I sincerely appreciate your kind response regarding my article

      And once again please visit our domestic website https://www.edgefxkits.com/

      For more details please contact to Sathish on +91 8885507011 or you can email us on info@edgefxkits.in

  3. Sir we have to design a buck boost converter for our minor project so please suggest about this.

  4. how the polarity gets reversed in the output??

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi,

      I sincerely appreciate your kind response regarding my article

      And once again please visit our domestic website https://www.edgefxkits.com/

      For more details please contact to Sathish on +91 8885507011 or you can email us on info@edgefxkits.in

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