# What is an Integrating Instrument & Its Working

An analog instrument is an electrical device that is used to measure physical quantities like voltage, current, power, and energy. They are classified into three types like classification based on measuring current, classification based on the basis of methods, and classification based on reading. Classification based measuring current is further classified as DC instruments, AC instruments, AC, and DC instruments. The classification based on the basis of methods is further classified as a direct method and comparison method. The classification based on reading is classified as indicating instruments, recording instrument’s and integrating instruments. This article gives an overview of the integrating instrument.

## What is Integrating Instrument?

Definition: An integrating instrument is an analog device which is used to measure the total energy supplied by the circuit in a given amount of time and is independent of total energy consumed.

Example: The best example of integrating systems is the watt-hour meter. A watt-hour meter is an electrical device that is used to evaluates and records the electrical power parameters based on the amount of current flowing through the circuit, in other words, the consumer or a residence can know how much amount of electricity is being utilized. Watt-hour meter is also called as an electric meter or electricity meter. They are further classified into 3 types like electro-mechanical type induction meter, electronic energy meter, and smart energy meters. Units: KWatt-Hour which is almost equal to 3600000 joules.

### Types of Integrating Instruments

Integrating instruments are classified into 2 types, they are

• Clock meter
• Motor meter

#### Clock Meter

The clock meter consists of 2 pendulums and 2 sets of coils. Where one coil is static and is energized with current and another coil is attached to the pendulum is energized with voltage. Due to the magnetic effect, the coils oscillate from fixed coil to a certain point, at this stage we can observe that one pendulum is oscillating and another pendulum is in a static state. The energy of clock meter can be calculated using the following formula

Energy = difference between the swing of the pendulums

#### Motor Meters

Motor meters are used to measure energy. The 3 main components of motor meters are

#### Operating Systems

Operating systems generate torque which depends on current.

Torque ∝ Current

That is as current increases torque increases, else if current decreases torque decreases. While the operating system is in running condition the motor meter rotates in clockwise and in the anti-clockwise direction.

#### Braking Systems

A barking torque is generated due to an eddy current while operating, and this torque is directly proportional to rotation speed. The motor meter runs at a steady speed at the loaded conditions.

Torque ∝ Rotation speed

#### Registering Systems

The registering system consists of the spindle and a wheel where the worm cut spindle, where the dynamic system is placed on the train of the wheel is fixed on the worm cut spindle using a pinion. The wheel rotates on the rotation of the spindle.

From the above two integrating systems, a clock meter is very expensive compared to a motor meter.

• Good quality of data
• Innovative
• Low cost
• More efficient.

The following are the advantages of integration systems they are

• Complex in construction
• Occupies large space

### Applications

The applications of integrating instrument are

• Ampere hour meter
• Kilo wattmeter (kWh)
• Kilovolt ampere-hour meter ( kVARh) etc.

Analog instruments are used to measure various electrical parameters like voltage, current, power, etc. An integrating system is a subclassification based on a reading instrument. It is a device that measures total energy supplied by the circuit in a given amount of time. Integrating systems are further classified as a clock meter system and a motor meter system. The main advantage of integrating a system is that is more efficient and innovative.