Wireless Sensor Network Architecture and Its Applications

Currently, WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) is the most standard services employed in commercial and industrial applications, because of its technical development in a processor, communication, and low-power usage of embedded computing devices. The WSN is built with nodes that are used to observe the surroundings like temperature, humidity, pressure, position, vibration, sound etc. These nodes can be used in various real-time applications to perform various tasks like smart detecting, a discovery of neighbor node, data processing and storage, data collection, target tracking, monitor and controlling, synchronization, node localization, and effective routing between the base station and nodes.

Presently, WSNs are beginning to be organized in an enhanced step. It is not awkward to expect that in 10 to 15 years that the world will be protected with WSNs with entree to them via the Internet. This can be measured as the Internet becoming a physical n/w. This technology is thrilling with infinite potential for many application areas like medical, environmental, transportation, military, entertainment, homeland defense, crisis management and also smart spaces.

What is a Wireless Sensor Network?

A Wireless Sensor Network is one kind of wireless network includes a large number of circulating, self-directed, minute, low powered devices named sensor nodes called motes. These networks certainly cover a huge number of spatially distributed, little, battery-operated, embedded devices that are networked to caringly collect, process, and transfer data to the operators, and it has controlled the capabilities of computing & processing. Nodes are the tiny computers, which work jointly to form the networks.

Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless Sensor Network

The sensor node is a multi-functional, energy efficient wireless device. The applications of motes in industrial are widespread. A collection of sensor nodes collects the data from the surroundings to achieve specific application objectives. The communication between motes can be done with each other using transceivers. In a wireless sensor network, the number of motes can be in the order of hundreds/ even thousands. In contrast with sensor n/ws, Ad Hoc networks will have fewer nodes without any structure.

Wireless Sensor Network Architecture

The most common WSN architecture follows the OSI architecture Model. The architecture of the WSN includes five layers and three cross layers. Mostly in sensor n/w we require five layers, namely application, transport, n/w, data link & physical layer. The three cross planes are namely power management, mobility management, and task management. These layers of the WSN are used to accomplish the n/w and make the sensors work together in order to raise the complete efficiency of the network.Please follow the below link for: Types of wireless sensor networks and WSN topologies

Wireless Sensor Network Architecture
Wireless Sensor Network Architecture

Application Layer

The application layer is liable for traffic management and offers software for numerous applications that convert the data in a clear form to find positive information. Sensor networks arranged in numerous applications in different fields such as agricultural, military, environment, medical, etc.


Transport Layer

The function of the transport layer is to deliver congestion avoidance and reliability where a lot of protocols intended to offer this function are either practical on the upstream. These protocols use dissimilar mechanisms for loss recognition and loss recovery. The transport layer is exactly needed when a system is planned to contact other networks.

Providing a reliable loss recovery is more energy efficient and that is one of the main reasons why TCP is not fit for WSN. In general, Transport layers can be separated into Packet driven, Event driven. There are some popular protocols in the transport layer namely STCP (Sensor Transmission Control Protocol), PORT (Price-Oriented Reliable Transport Protocol and PSFQ (pump slow fetch quick).

Network Layer

The main function of the network layer is routing, it has a lot of tasks based on the application, but actually, the main tasks are in the power conserving, partial memory, buffers, and sensor don’t have a universal ID and have to be self-organized.

The simple idea of the routing protocol is to explain a reliable lane and redundant lanes, according to a convinced scale called metric, which varies from protocol to protocol. There are a lot of existing protocols for this network layer, they can be separate into; flat routing and hierarchal routing or can be separated into time driven, query-driven & event driven.

Data Link Layer

The data link layer is liable for multiplexing data frame detection, data streams, MAC, & error control, confirm the reliability of point–point (or) point– multipoint.

Physical Layer

The physical layer provides an edge for transferring a stream of bits above physical medium. This layer is responsible for the selection of frequency, generation of a carrier frequency, signal detection, Modulation & data encryption. IEEE 802.15.4 is suggested as typical for low rate particular areas & wireless sensor network with low cost, power consumption, density, the range of communication to improve the battery life. CSMA/CA is used to support star & peer to peer topology. There are several versions of IEEE 802.15.4.V.

Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Network

The characteristics of WSN include the following.

  • The consumption of Power limits for nodes with batteries
  • Capacity to handle with node failures
  • Some mobility of nodes and Heterogeneity of nodes
  • Scalability to large scale of distribution
  • Capability to ensure strict environmental conditions
  • Simple to use
  • Cross-layer design

Advantages of Wireless Sensor Networks

The advantages of WSN include the following

  • Network arrangements can be carried out without immovable infrastructure.
  • Apt for the non-reachable places like mountains, over the sea, rural areas and deep forests.
  • Flexible if there is a casual situation when an additional workstation is required.
  • Execution pricing is inexpensive.
  • It avoids plenty of wiring.
  • It might provide accommodations for the new devices at any time.
  • It can be opened by using a centralized monitoring.

Wireless Sensor Network Applications

Wireless sensor networks may comprise of numerous different types of sensors like low sampling rate, seismic, magnetic, thermal, visual, infrared, radar, and acoustic, which are clever to monitor a wide range of ambient situations. Sensor nodes are used for constant sensing, event ID, event detection & local control of actuators. The applications of wireless sensor network mainly include health, military, environmental, home, & other commercial areas.

sWSN Applications
WSN Application
  • Military Applications
  • Health Applications
  • Environmental Applications
  • Home Applications
  • Commercial Applications
  • Area monitoring
  • Health care monitoring
  • Environmental/Earth sensings
  • Air pollution monitoring
  • Forest fire detection
  • Landslide detection
  • Water quality monitoring
  • Industrial monitoring

Thus, this is all about what is a wireless sensor network, WSN architecture, characteristics, and applications. We hope that you have hot a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any queries or to know about wireless sensor network project ideas, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the different types of wireless sensor networks?


  1. This is really helpful for me thank you soo much 😊😊

    1. Tarun Agarwal says:

      Hi Shadma
      We really appreciate you taking the time out to share your experience with us

  2. Karly Grewe says:

    I’ve learn a few good stuff here. Definitely value bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how a lot attempt you set to make one of these wonderful informative web site.

  3. Basanta Adhikari says:

    good work, really useful, but can you please manage the setting of your site to show the published date of the articles

  4. Samant kumar says:

    Easy to find in summery type wsn

  5. Mufutau Opeyemi says:

    Please I Need An Already Done Final Year Project On (Development Of A Wireless Sensor Network Based Data Fusion For Real Time Enviromental Parameters Monitoring) To Give Me Guideline On How To Write Project On This Project

  6. Rashmi kale says:

    Hii sir i m Rashmi final year ece student i want to do project on security s/m using wireless comm can u plz help me in finding better ideas….!!!

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