What is Regenerative Braking System : Working & Its Applications

Moving vehicles like cars and buses include lots of kinetic energy and its movement can be controlled by applying brakes, then the energy within the vehicle will go somewhere. In the early days, the brakes used in an internal combustion engine cars were simply based on friction & changed the vehicle’s kinetic energy can be changed into exhausting heat to slow down a car. All of that energy was just gone to the surroundings. Auspiciously, we have developed a system in a better way namely a regenerative braking system. This is a range booster used in an electric vehicle to make them less inefficient. Generally, the most capable method to drive any car would be at a constant speed and without touching the brake pedal. This article discusses an overview of the Regenerative braking system.

What is Regenerative Braking?

Definition: An energy recovery device used to slow down a moving car otherwise an object by changing its energy from kinetic to another form to use immediately otherwise stored until required is known as regenerative braking. In this device, the energy can be recovered by using the moment of a car from an electric traction motor.

Regenerative Braking System
Regenerative Braking System

This compares with normal braking systems, wherever the surplus kinetic energy can be changed into unnecessary & exhausted heat because of friction within the brakes. However, it is directly dissolute like heat in resistors and improves the vehicle’s overall efficiency. So the life of the braking system can be extended through the regeneration because the mechanical parts will not exhaust very fast.

Regenerative Braking Working

This system uses the motor to drive an electric vehicle as well as to perform the braking function. The motor in this system has a dual function as a motor and generator. In one direction, it works like a motor whereas, in another direction, it works like a generator.

Once the brake is applied then the motor runs in the opposite direction like a generator mode thus, wheels get slow down. So the wheels generate the kinetic energy and the generator changes the energy from kinetic to electrical while rotating. After that, it transmits the generated electricity back to charge the batteries.

This braking system uses multiple electronic circuits to select among the forward or reverse the direction of the revolution of the electric motor. In some situations, designers utilize capacitors to store the energy for afterward use. In an electric vehicle, a fully charged battery is very helpful because It expands its range of driving and also aids to recover the mileage.

How to Install RBS?

The installation of RBS can be done by fixing it into the drive wheels of a car where they slow down the movement of the wheels with the help of mechanical torque or magnetic fields. These techniques will allow energy to be produced beneath the braking system.

Because of the energy storage device’s utmost charging rate, the braking force can be limited. So, a fixed friction brake system is necessary to preserve the secure process of a vehicle when deep braking is required. This regenerative braking can improve fuel consumption & decrease the entire braking load. These braking systems are applicable in each electric & hybrid electric vehicles. Additionally, public transport like bullet trains, buses makes use of these systems to reduce the impacts of the environment.

Regenerative Braking of DC Motor

In this type of braking, the kinetic energy (KE) of the dc motor can be returned to the power supply system. This is possible once the driven load powers the motor to drive at high speed than no-load speed through a constant excitation.

The back emf (Eb) of the motor is higher than the voltage supply (V), which overturns the motor’s direction and it starts to work like an electric generator. The regenerative braking system cannot be utilized to end a motor however to control its speed over the no-load speed of the motor driving the downward loads.

Regenerative Braking of Induction Motor

The braking system is used to reduce the induction motor’s speed. In this, the induction motor functions as a generator by increasing a negative torque to oppose the movement of a motor. An induction motor braking can be done in three braking methods like regenerative, plugging and dynamic braking

In a regenerative mode, this motor gives the power supply. To achieve this, the motor’s slip should be negative that is, the rotor speed should be more compared with the flux speed. So that the rotor runs more than the synchronous speed.

This negative slip is achieved through a separate prime mover to drive the rotor at high speed compare with synchronous speed. This type of process is used in electric traction to produce power when the train is moving downward.

Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicle

In an electric vehicle, this is used to change the kinetic energy of the vehicle into chemical energy which is stored within the battery. Later, it can be used to drive the electric vehicle. An electric vehicle with regenerative braking includes motors to rotate the wheels. The power of the battery can be used to rotate the motor. These motors can be upturned and act as a generator to slow down the car speed. In this procedure, the electric motor boosts the battery.

Regenerative Braking Applications

The applications of this braking system include the following.

  • Electric Vehicles
  • DC Motors
  • Induction Motors
  • Electric Traction

Advantages and Disadvantages of Regenerative Braking

The advantages include the following.

  • This braking system will increase the vehicle’s fuel economy.
  • It permits for conventional brakes based on friction.
  • It extends the battery charge.

The disadvantages include the following.

  • Extra apparatus is necessary to manage the regeneration
  • Maintenance cost is high for protecting the apparatus as well as machines

FAQs

1). What is the regenerative braking system?

This is an energy recovery device that reduces the speed of a moving vehicle by changing its kinetic energy into another form to use instantly otherwise stored until required.

2). What are the pros of regenerative braking?

It expands the driving range, braking efficiency can be improved, decreases brake wear, etc

3).What are the types of braking systems?

They are electromagnetic, electromagnetic-flywheel, flywheel, spring, auto racing, hydraulic, hybrid, and electric cars.

4). Which motor is used in regenerative braking?

DC series motor

5).Which is a more efficient ac motor/dc motor?

DC motors are more efficient because ac motors utilize a set of coils that are powered & controlled through AC i/p voltage.

Thus, this is all about an overview of regenerative braking. While driving the vehicle, a large amount of kinetic energy will be changed into heat and disappeared from the car. A regenerative braking system uses this heat to restore the batteries of the vehicle. This braking system still depends on uncontrollable variables. But, the regenerative braking system has a variety of benefits like the driving range can be extended, the efficiency of braking can be improved, decreases brake wear, etc. Here is a question for you, what are the different types of regenerative braking?

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