Make a Wireless Robotic Vehicle Using IR Sensors

A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, generally an electromechanical machine that is guided by a computer program using electronic circuitry. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda’s is the advanced Step in Innovative Mobility and TOSY’s. TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot to industrial robots, patent assist robots, medical operating robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, and even microscopic nanorobots. By representing a life like an appearance or automating movements, a robot may transfer a sense of intelligence or through on its own. This article discusses IR sensor-based wireless robotic vehicles.

What is a Wireless Robotic Vehicle?

The robot is a technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems,  is used to control, sensory feedback, and information processing are called robots. This technology deals with automated machines that can be placed by humans in dangerous environments, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior. Nowadays robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. These robots also created a new branch of robotics and soft robotics. The mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there are more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control, and wireless remote control.

Wireless Robotic Vehicle
Wireless Robotic Vehicle

What is an IR Sensor?

An IR sensor is a device that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings which detects IR radiation falling on it. The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode that is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength is emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the resistances and output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received. There are many types of IR sensors that are built and can be built depending upon the application. Contrast sensors (Used in Line Following Robots), Proximity sensors (Used in Touch Screen phones), and obstruction sensors (Used for counting goods and in Burglar Alarms) are some examples.

IR Sensor
IR Sensor

Radio Frequency Remote Controlled Wireless Robot

The RF controlled wireless robotic vehicle mainly includes an RF transmitter and RF receiver.

RF Transmitter

RF modules are usually a very small size and operate in the voltage range of 3V to 12V. RF transmitter modules are designed to work with 433MHz frequency only. If transmitting logic zero, then no power is drawn by the transmitter. For transmitting, logic is one, it consumes power about 4.5 mA with 3V. The transmitter and receiver interfaced with the 8051 microcontrollers and get the desired operation. RF transmitter has supplied voltage in the range of 3V to 6V and output power in the range of 4V to 12V.

RF Transmitter
RF Transmitter

The RF transmitter circuit diagram is shown below is used to connect different push buttons to move the robotic vehicle in different directions like forward, backward, right and left. Thus, by pressing the appropriate push button, we can control the robotic vehicle’s movement.


RF Receiver

RF receiver is also being small in size and RF receiver has supply current of 3.5mA with an operating voltage of 5V. RF transmitter modules are designed to work with 433MHz only (that should match with the transmitter frequency for communication purposes to receive signals from the transmitter).

RF Receiver
RF Receiver

RF Communication by using the Robotic Vehicle

Radiofrequency (RF) consists of a transmitter and a receiver, which is connected to an isolated circuit that is to be controlled. A control signal is transferred from the transmitter end in the form of radio waves or electromagnetic waves, such that to control the device remotely, which is connected to the receiver end. This control signal is transmitted by using electromagnetic waves or radio waves of radiofrequency. Thus, the control signal received at the receiver end and get the accurate output such as a robotic vehicle, special purpose robot, communication purpose device, and so on.

RF Controlled Robotic Vehicle

The main goal of this project is to design a robotic vehicle that is controlled by a TV remote. Here, the proposed system uses RF technology for remote operation. An IR sensor is interfaced to the control unit of the robot for detecting the infrared signals which are transmitted by the remote. An 8051 series of the microcontroller is used for the preferred operation.

At the transmitting (TX) section, pushbuttons are used to send the commands to the receiver end to control the robot’s movement, either to move in four directions like forward, right, backward and left, etc. At the receiving section, two motors interfaced with the 8051 family microcontroller where they are used for the vehicle’s movement.

IR Sensor based Wireless Robotic Vehicle Project Kit
IR Sensor-based Wireless Robotic Vehicle Project Kit

The TV remote generates RC5 based data that is received by an infrared receiver interfaced with the microcontroller. The inbuilt program in the microcontroller refers to the code to produce preferred output based on the i/p data to function the motors via a motor driver IC.

The RF transmitter performs as an RF remote control that has the advantage of ample range (up to 200 meters) with a suitable antenna, while the receiver decodes before supplying it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors through motor driver IC for required work.

Further, this project can be enhanced using DTMF technology. Using RF technology we can control the robot by using a cell phone. This technology has an advantage over long communication range as compared to RF technology.

Thus, this is all about IR sensor-based wireless robotic vehicles. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or electrical and electronics projects, please give your feedback in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the main function of the IR sensor?

Comments are closed.