How to Build a Robot with an Arduino and 8051 Microcontroller

In the modern world, robot will play an important role. The main purpose of robot is to  decrease the man power. The robots are used in electronics in many applications. In this article we have discussed about how to build a robot with the Arduino module & 8051 microcontroller. To build a robot with the Arduino we are explaining about the arduino robot with the obstacle avoidance. The required components includes Robot body, DC motor , Ultrasonic sensor, Arduino module , Motor driver IC  and Arduino Module

How to Build a Robot ?

The required components to build the robot includes the following

Robot Body

The basic robot body of the robot of obstacle avoidance is shown in the following image. The robot body is a plastic body and it contains wheels on both sides. In front of the robot body the ultrasonic sensor is arranged. By using the ultrasonic sensor the obstacle can detect. When the robot is moving, if any obstacle is detected by the ultrasonic sensor then the robot will move aside and it will continue moving.

Robot Body
Robot Body

DC Motor

The DC motor is an electric motor and it runs on direct current electricity. The operation of any electric motor is based on the electromagnetism. The magnetic field is produced by the current carrying conductor when it is placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor.Generally, we know that the magnets are opposite polarity attraction from north to south and if the polarities are same like north to north & south to south then the magnets will repel.

DC Motor
DC Motor

The internal configuration of DC motor is designed to attach the magnetic interaction between the current carrying conductor and the external magnetic field to produce the motion. In this we are using two DC motors, each motor contains 6v and the total two DC motors contain 12v. The two DC motors are placed in the robot body which we can observe in the following image. The robot body is moved with the help of the DC motors

Robot Body with DC Motor
Robot Body with DC Motor

Arduino Module

The following image shows the arduino module image. The arduino module plays an important role in the design of the obstacle avoidance robot using arduino kit. The receiver pin of the arduino is connected to the second pin of ultrasonic sensor and the 1st, 2nd, & 3rd pin of arduino module is connected to the DC motor driver. The common components capacitor and diode are also connected to the arduino module with the help of the battery power supply.

Arduino Module
Arduino Module

Motor Driver IC

To run the DC motor the motor driver IC used. The pins 3,6 & 11, 14 of motor driver are connected to the DC motor. The input pin 1 and 2 are connected to the arduino module and the enable pin is connected to the transmitter pin of the arduino. The pins 4, 5, 12, 13 of motor driver are connected to the ground.

Motor Driver IC
Motor Driver IC

Ultrasonic Sensor

In this concept the ultrasonic sensor is used to detect an obstacle ahead and it will send the command to the arduino board. Depending upon the input signal the microcontroller redirects the robot to move in alternate directions.

Ultrasonic Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor

The applications of the arduino robot obstacle avoidance

  • The arduino robot can move on any surface
  • It can move on metallic surface like refrigerator body.

The below image shows the arduino robot for obstacle avoidance

Arduino Robot for Obstacle Avoidance
Arduino Robot for Obstacle Avoidance

To build a robot with the 8051 microcontroller we are explaining about the metal detector robot vehicle. The components required to build the robot with the 8051 microcontroller are

  • 8051 microcontroller
  • DC motors
  • Motor drivers
  • Metal detector
  • Decoder
  • Encoder
  • Push buttons
  • Crystal
  • RF transmitter and receiver

Metal Detector

The metal detector is a coil it has one or more metal coils used to detect the metals on the ground. The metal detector works on the principle of the electromagnetic induction. The metal detector is connected to the robot body through the PCB which we can observe in the last image. The following image shows the general metal detector used in the electronic projects.

Metal Detector
Metal Detector

Push Buttons

The push buttons are buttons which are made up of hard metals like plastic and metal. Generally the push buttons are used to reset the program in the microcontroller. The following image shows the push button image.

Push Button
Push Button

8051 Microcontroller

The 8051 microcontroller consists of 40 pins. The 4th & 5th pin of the microcontroller is connected to the crystal oscillator. The Vcc pin is given to the power supply of 5V and the ground pin is connected to the ground. The pins 15, 16, 18, 19 of the microcontroller are connected to the encoder IC of HT12E. The microcontroller pins 2, 7, 8, 9, are connected to the push buttons.

The following image after connecting all the components like resistor, capacitor, crystal oscillator, 8051 series microcontroller, encoders and etc are on the printed circuit board.

PCB Connections
PCB Connections

The below image shows the metal detector robot with the 8051 series microcontroller.

Metal Detector Robot with the 8051 Series Microcontroller
Metal Detector Robot with the 8051 Series Microcontroller

In this article we have discussed about the How to build a robot with the arduino and 8051 Microcontroller. I hope by reading this article you have gained some basic knowledge to build a robot. If you have any queries about this article or about the electronics and communication projects, please feel free to comment in the below section. Here is the question for you, What is a 8051 series microcontroller?

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4 Comments

  1. Ashutosh singh says:

    hi. i want to know how to make human detecting robot.?
    i want the wholw procedure and code.

  2. Please tell me that how to code the 8051 microcontroller

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