# Phase Locked Loop System In Communication Systems with Applications

In our day-to-day life, we use  to communicate with others frequently using multiple types of communication systems. This communication system can be classified into different types, such as a Radio communication system, Telecommunication system, Wireless communication system, Optical communication system, and so on. For all these communication systems to operate efficiently, we require a few control systems such as a Phase- locked loop, Cooperative control, Networked control and so on.

## What is Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)?

Phase-locked loop is used as a control system to control different operations in many communication systems, computers and many electronic applications. It is used to generate an output signal which has a phase related to input signal phase.

There are different types of PLLs such as Analog or Linear PLL, Digital PLL, Software PLL, Neuronal PLL and all digital PLL.

### Phase Locked Loop Operation

In communication systems, the PLL operation can be explained by considering analog and digital systems.

### Analog Phase-Locked Loop in Communication Systems

Basically PLL is a form of servo loop and a basic PLL consists of three major elements, namely phase comparator/detector, loop filter and voltage controlled oscillator.

The major concept behind the PPL operation is comparision of the phases of two signals (generally input and output signal phases are compared). Thus, the phase difference between the input and output signal can be used for controlling the loop frequency. Even though mathematical analysis is very complicated, but the operation of the PLL is very simple.

In many communication systems, PLL is used for different purposes:

• For following the phase or frequency modulation, it is used as Demodulator.
• To track or synchronize the two signals with different frequencies.
• To remove large noises from tiny signals.

The below figure shows the basic PLL which consists of Phase Detector, Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO), Loop Filter.

The voltage-controlled oscillator of PLL produces a signal and this signal from the VCO is given to the phase detector. The phase detector compares this signal with the reference signal and thus, produces an error voltage or difference voltage. This error signal of the phase detector is fed to the low-pass filter for removing high-frequency elements of the signal -if any, and for governing many properties of the loop. Then, the output of the loop filter is fed to supply the tuning voltage for the control terminal of the voltage controlled oscillator.

The change in this tuning voltage is sensed to reduce the phase difference between the two signals (input and output) and thus, the frequency between them. Initially the PLL does not lock and the error voltage drags the VCO frequency towards the reference until the error can not be reduced any further and then the loop gets locked.

The actual error between the two signals (input and output) is reduced to very small levels using an amplifier in between the voltage-controlled oscillator and a phase detector. If the PLL is locked, then a steady-state error voltage will be produced. This steady-state error voltage represents that there is no phase difference change between the reference signal and VCO. Thus, we can say that the frequency of the two signals (input and output signals) is exactly same.

### Digital Phase Locked Loop in Communication systems

In general analog PLLs consists of an analog-phase detector, voltage- controlled oscillator and low-pass filter. Similarly, the digital-phase locked loop consists of a digital-phase detector, a serial-shift register, a stable- local clock signal.

The digital input samples are extracted from the received signal and these samples are received by the serial shift register, which is driven by clock pulses supplied from a local-clock signal. A Phase-corrector circuit that takes local clock is used to regenerate a stable-clock signal in phase with the received signal by slow phase adjustment to match the received signal phase.

This adjustment can be done based on a high-speed sample of each bit using a correction logic. The received signal sample obtained by the sampling of the received signal at local clock speed is placed in the shift register.

The required phase adjustment can be detected by observing the set of samples of the received signal. The two clocks are said to be in phase if and only if the center of the received bit lies at the center of the shift register. Phase adjuster is intended to compensate if the regenerated clock lags or leads the reference signal.

### Application of Phase Locked Loop

• PLLs are frequently used for the purpose of synchronization and for bit synchronization, symbol synchronization, coherent demodulation and threshold extension in space communication.
• The frequency modulated signals can be demodulated using the PLL.
• The new frequency which is a multiple of reference frequency in radio communication transmitters, and synthesized by maintaining the stability of reference frequency with new frequency can be achieved by PLLs.
• There are numerous application for PLLs in many communication systems, computers and many electronic circuits.
• The below application of PLL describes the usage of PLL as voltage to frequency converter.

#### Voltage to Frequency Converter (VFC) Using a PLL

In communication systems, it is required to send signals (consider an analog signal here) to a long distance with full accuracy. For this purpose, a voltage-to-frequency converter is used, as it is easy to send a frequency signal without causing any interference over a long distance using optical isolators, coaxial or twisted-pair lines, radio links, optical fiber links.

There are two types of voltage-to-frequency converters namely multivibrator type VFC and charge balance type VFC.

#### Multivibrator Type VFC

In the multivibrator type VFC, the capacitor is charged and discharged using the current obtained from the input voltage. Stable reference input is given to set switching thresholds, and the output frequency is proportional to the input voltage and have unity mark-space ratio.

#### Charge Balance type VFC

The charge balance VFC consists of an Integrator, a Comparator and a precision Charge source.Whenever an input is given to the integrator, it gets charged and if the output of this integrator reaches the comparator threshold, then the charge source is triggered and fixed charge is removed from the integrator. The charge removed rate must be equal to the charge supplied rate such that, the charge source triggered frequency and the input to the integrator will be proportional to each other.