IoT Interview Questions & Answers

The term IoT stands for “Internet of Things”, which is higher automation as well as for analytics system used to exploit big data, networking, sensing, & artificial intelligence to provide an entire system intended for a product otherwise service. These systems permit users for achieving deeper automation, incorporation, and study in a system. IoT develops current progress in software, declining hardware prices & current attitudes in technology. Here we have listed some IoT Interview Questions and answers. These IoT interview questions are collected from different fields of engineering.

IoT Interview Questions and Answers

The following IoT Interview Questions with answers are very helpful for electronics and electrical students to clear the technical round in an interview. The IoT interview questions are collected from different fields of electronics as well as electrical.

IoT Interview Questions
IoT Interview Questions

1). What is an IoT?

A). IoT stands for the Internet of Things. It is a network in which various things can communicate with each other using a network as a means of communication between them. Usually, this Network will be the internet.

2). What is the difference between IoT devices and embedded devices?

A). Internet of things is a type of embedded system that connects to the internet. Embedded systems tend to be small software programs that implement a few functions. Internet of Things may be updated constantly according to the environment and learn by itself.


3). Does the internet is always needed for any IOS devices?

A). No, the internet is not actually needed all the time. But there should be some network present so that the devices are capable of speaking with each other.

4). What is an Arduino?

A). Arduino is an open-source electronics platform that has easy to use both hardware and software. Arduino boards are Microcontroller that is capable of reading input from sensors to controlling motors and etc. programmatically.

5). How to write instructions or programs for Arduino boards?

A). The Arduino Software (IDE) allows you to write programs and upload them to your board. A bootloader is needed to upload or flash the code to the board.

6). What are the hardware communication interfaces present in the Arduino board?

A). It has several communication protocols like I2C, SPI, Serial, PWM and etc. 8. What programming language is used to code Arduino? Ans: Basically C programming language is used to code Arduino boards

7). What is a Raspberry Pi?

A). Raspberry Pi is a credit card-sized computer that is capable of doing all operations like a conventional computer. But it also has other built-in features like onboard Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPIO pins to communicate with other external Things.

8). Difference between Arduino and Raspberry Pi?

A). Basically, Arduino is a microcontroller and Raspberry Pi is a microprocessor. Raspberry Pi is slightly superior to Arduino boards like it has better CPU and GPU processing along with onboard Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Ethernet and etc.

9). What is the operating voltage for both Arduino and Raspberry Pi?

A). Raspberry Pi works in 5V input voltage and for Arduino, its operating voltage is between 5-12V. Arduino boards have a regulator, which helps is work on a different input voltage.

10). What are the hardware communication interfaces present in the Raspberry Pi?

A). Similar to Arduino boards Raspberry pi also has several communication protocols like I2C, SPI, Serial, PWM and etc.

11). What are GPIO pins?

A). GPIO stands for General Purpose Input and Output pins. It is capable of reading and writing data from development boards like Raspberry and Arduino to other Sensors, motors, actuators, and etc.

12). What is the latest Raspberry Pi release?

A). Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ was the latest release of the RPi team with a much better CPU @ 1.4GHz on March 18, 2018.

13). How many GPIO pins are there in Raspberry Pi?

A). Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ as 40 GPIO pins that can only read and write digital data.

14). What are Interrupts in Arduino?

A). Interrupts allow certain important tasks to happen in the background and are enabled by default. An Interrupt’s job is to make sure that the processor responds quickly to important events. When a certain signal is detected, an Interrupt interrupts whatever the processor is doing, and executes some code designed to react.

15). List a few operating systems that Raspberry Pi supports?

A). The official operating system for Raspberry Pi is Raspbian. Although it supports other operating systems like Kali Linux, OSMC, Windows 10 IoT Core, Android Things, RetroPie and etc.

16). How do you run Raspberry pi in headless mode?

A). You can use SSH into Raspberry Pi and run in headless mode. Latest Raspbian OS has an inbuilt VNC server installed with that you can take remote desktop on Raspberry Pi.

17). What are the available wireless communications boards present in Raspberry Pi?

A). Wi-Fi and Bluetooth/BLE are the wireless communications present in Raspberry Pi.

18). What Python libraries used in Raspberry Pi to control GPIO pins?

A). RPi.GPIO is the python libraries used in Raspberry Pi to control GPIO pins.

19). Can node JS be used in Raspberry Pi to control GPIO pins?

A). Yes, RPI-gpio is the node library used to control Raspberry Pi GPIO pins.

20) What is the syntax to read analog and digital data from a sensor in Arduino?

A). digitalRead() and digitalWrite() are respectively used to read and write digital data to the sensors. analogRead() and analogWrite() are respectively used to read and write analog data to the sensors.

21). What is Arduino Shields?

A). Arduino shields are modular circuit boards that piggyback onto your Arduino to instill it with extra functionality.=

22). Examples of the MEMS sensor?

A). MPU6050- Gyroscope, ADXL345 – Accelerometer, piezoelectric sensor and etc.

23). What is PWM?

A). PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation. Pulse width modulation allows us to vary how much time the signal is high in an analog fashion. While the signal can only be high (usually 5V) or low (ground) at any time, we can change the proportion of time the signal is high compared to when it is low over a consistent time interval.

24). List some applications of PWM in IoT?

A). Dimming LED, controlling the speed of DC motor, controlling the direction of a servo motor and etc.

25). What sensor and actuator are used to control any home appliances from any IOS devices in wired mode?

A). A relay is used to control any home appliances from any IoT or Embedded devices. A relay is nothing but an electrically operated switch.

26). What is the ZigBee protocol?

A). ZigBee is a wireless Technology with IEEE 802.15.4 based high-level communication protocols which can use to create personal area networks with small, low-power devices for home automation, medical device, and other low-power low bandwidth needs. Hence, ZigBee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity wireless ad hoc network.

27). What is BLE?

A). BLE stands for Bluetooth Low Energy. Bluetooth Low Energy uses the same 2.4 GHz radio frequencies as classic Bluetooth but uses less power to transmit distance over a short distance.

28). What is the use of BLE in IoT?

A). Unlike classic Bluetooth, BLE remains in sleep mode constantly except for when a connection is initiated. It is used in applications that do not need to exchange large amounts of data and can, therefore, run on battery power for years at a cheaper cost, therefore it is used as one of the means of exchanging data between the devices.

29). What is MicroPython?

A). MicroPython is a lean and efficient implementation of the Python 3 programming language that includes a small subset of the Python standard library and is optimized to run on microcontrollers such as NodeMCU.

30). How many hardware serial interfaces are in ESP 32?

A). There are 3 hardware serial interfaces that are there in ESP32. 37. What firmware can be flashed into NodeMCU? Ans: Either Arduino or MicroPython firmware can be flashed into NodeMCU.

31). What are Subscribers and Publishers in MQTT?

A). Publisher – The devices which transmit or send data over the MQ broker. Subscribers – The devices which consume or reads data over the MQ broker.

32). Example of some MQTT services?

A). Mosquito MQTT, Cloud MQTT, and PubNub are the commonly known MQTT services available.

33). Can NodeMCU act as a web server?

A). Yes, with the help of ESP8266WebServer Arduino library. This library is for ESP8266. Such similar libraries are also available for other NodeMCU board. 42. What are other development boards available? Ans: Other boards such as Beagle Bone Black, BananaPi, Intel’s Galileo, Asus Tinker Board, MSP 430 Launchpad, and etc.

34). What is Windows 10 IoT Core?

A). Windows 10 IoT Core is a full-fledged operating system based on Windows 10 specifically designed to operate on embedded devices. This will empower you to build a single universal app experience.

35). Name some of the sectors where IOT played a major role?

A). Manufacturing, Transportation, Utilities, Healthcare, Consumer electronics, and cars.

36). What are the challenges in IoT?

A). Power utilization and Security will be the major challenges faced in IoT. As all devices are connected to one single network, a small bug implanted into the network will affect all those devices which lead to chaos.

37). Can I take over the human mind?

A). No, I cannot take the place of the human brain. As the human brain is very complex, self-learning, and the decision making capability makes every known device incomparable to it.

38). What is the scope of IoT devices in the future?

A). Ans: As per Gartner’s report, a total count of IoT devices may hit up to 21 Billion by 2020 worldwide.

39). What is the big IoT implementation so far?

A). Smart Homes, self-driven cars and etc. are the biggest implementations so far.

40). What are Android things?

A). It is an Android-based operating system particularly builds for embedded devices like Raspberry Pi and so on.

41). What are the most used sensors types in it?

A). The most used sensors in IoT are temperature, proximity, pressure, gas, smoke, IR, and Motion sensors

42). How did you detect fire, which sensor is suitable?

A). I will use a smoke sensor which detects fire and smoke

43). How did you measure the voltage using sensors?

A). I will use Thermocouples which are used for measuring the voltage.

44). How do Thermocouples work?

A). It will measure the temperature with a change in voltage if temperature increases thermocouples output voltage will be increased

45). What are the sensors that can be used in Agriculture?

A). The sensors used in the agriculture field mainly include soil moisture sensors, airflow sensors, electrochemical sensors.

46). What is the purpose of Airflow sensors?

A). It used to measure the air level in soil, we can measure it from one location or dynamically get from multiple places from the garden.

47). How to did you make a small radar? is it possible?

A). Yes it’s possible, by using ultrasonic sensor we can make our own radar, which is detected object presence and distance

48). How did you check the quality of water?

A). Using Water quality sensors, i can detect the quality of waters

49). Can you list out some of the water sensors?

A). Some of the water sensors are total organic carbon sensor, turbidity sensor, conductivity sensor, and pH sensor

50). Do you have a better idea for saving electricity?

A). Yes, i have, by using light-detecting sensors we can switch off street light automatically, which is saved a lot of electricity.

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Thus, this is all about IoT interview questions and answers job. These job interview questions and answers are very useful for electronics and electrical graduates to clear the technical round for an interview.